在福布斯的一篇名为“5 Chinese Marketing Terms You Must Know In 2020”的文章中，作者Lauran Hallanan总结了五个对于想要了解2020年中国市场营销的外国人来说必须要学会的词。
These are not merely flash-in-the-pan fads, but long-lasting trends that reflect the changing preferences and habits of Chinese consumers.这些词汇并非昙花一现的潮流，而是能够反映中国消费者习惯与偏好的**趋势。
"Xiachen" literally means to sink or submerge and is now a popular term meaning that brands’ marketing efforts are adapting to sink or move down into lower tier markets.
In the past, brands looking to reach Chinese consumers have typically been focused on co**opolitan consumers in China’s first and sometimes second tier cities. However, over the past few years, consumption growth in these cities has slowed as the market has become oversaturated. These mature shoppers are overwhelmed with choice and it is costly for brands to break through the noise.过去，希望**到中国消费者的品牌通常把精力聚焦在中国一、二线城市见多识广的消费者身上。然而，在过去几年中，随着市场**过于饱和，这些城市的消费增长放缓。这些成熟的购物者们被各种各样的选择所淹没，品牌要想打破这种营销噪音，代价是非常高昂的。
Consumers in China’s less-developed urban centers and rural areas are driving the next wave of consumption growth in the country. A recent survey of over 6,700 Chinese female shoppers found that consumers in third-tier cities and below planned to spend more than consumers in first- and second-tier cities during 2019’s Alibaba 11.11 Shopping Festival.中国次发达的城市中心和农村地区的消费者们正在推动中国的下一波消费增长。最近一项针对6700多名中国女性消费者的调查发现，在2019年阿里巴巴双十一购物节期间，三线及以下城市的消费者计划的消费额超过了一、二线城市的消费者。
私域流量 Private traffic
The term refers to internet users whom you can directly contact or who seek out your channels without you having to pay to reach them.私域流量指的就是那些你可以直**达的网民，或者那些能自己找到你的渠道，并无需你为此付费的网民。
Similar to Facebook and Instagram, organic reach is being heavily restricted on most Chinese social media and e-commerce platforms, requiring brands and influencers to pay to reach their own followers, and brands are looking for alternatives.与脸书和Ins类似，有机触达在大多数中国社交媒体和电子商务平台上受到严格限制，使得品牌和网红KOL付费才能**到自己的粉丝，因此，品牌们也在寻找替代营销方案。
Right now, the super app WeChat is the biggest private traffic channel in China. Brands are using personal WeChat accounts and WeChat groups to create communities of consumers. Although a labor-intensive process, it reduces the distance between the brand and consumer and helps build loyalty. In 2020 we are likely to see more brands running these communities with the help of custom chatbots.目前，微信这款超级应用是中国最大的私域流量渠道。品牌利用个人微信账号和微信群打造消费者社区。虽然这是一个劳动密集型的过程，但它缩短了品牌与消费者之间的距离，有助于建立忠诚度。到2020年，我们可能会看到更多的品牌在定制聊天机器人的帮助下运营这些社区。
In many parts of Asia, influencers are referred to as KOLs or key opinion leaders. This year, a subsegment of KOL marketing took off, and that was KOCs or key opinion customers/consumers.在亚洲许多地区，有营销影响力的人被称为KOL或“关键意见领袖”。今年，KOL营销的一个子市场开始腾飞，这就是KOC或“关键意见客户/消费者”。
KOCs are essentially long-tail micro influencers. They are ordinary everyday consumers who enjoy sharing their experiences on social media. Generally, they are knowledgeable on certain topics. Unlike KOLs, they may only have an audience of several hundred to a few thousand followers and therefore typically have a much closer relationship with their followers than a KOL does. Unlike KOL campaigns, KOC campaigns are typically unpaid – KOCs receive free product with the hope that they will share content.KOC本质上是“长尾微影响者”。他们是普通的日常消费者，喜欢在社交媒体上分享自己的经历。一般来说，他们对某些专业话题很了解。与KOL不同的是，他们可能只有几百到几千名粉丝，因此与粉丝的关系通常比KOL更密切。与KOL的营销活动不同，KOC的营销活动通常是无偿的——他们会收到免费产品，品牌希望他们能分享使用感受。
Chinese consumers are becoming more sophisticated, they have a lot of options to avoid traditional advertising. Their attention span is also decreasing meaning it is getting harder to keep their attention once you have it.
Unlike several years ago, consumers are now very aware that KOLs are promoting products because they are being paid to. They are craving more content that is not commercially influenced.与几年前不同的是，现在消费者非常清楚，KOL是收了钱在推广产品。消费者们希望看到更多不受商业影响的（未恰饭的）内容。
Li Jiaqi, a Chinese blogger, who endorses beauty products through livestreaming, applies lipstick during a live broadcast on the Taobao platform in Shanghai. [Photo by Niu Jing/For China Daily]
While e-commerce livestreaming has existed in China for several years, it took off in 2019, which was made clear during this year’s Singles Day shopping festival when livestreaming on Alibaba’s Taobao livestreaming platform generated $2.85 billion in sales — around 7.5 percent of the day’s total sales.虽然电商直播在中国已经存在了好几年，但它是在2019年开始腾飞的。很能说明问题的情况是，在去年的双十一购物节中，阿里巴巴的淘宝电商直播就产生了28.5亿美元的销售额（约合**币197.3亿元）—— 占这一天总销售额的7.5%左右。
The growth of e-commerce livestreaming is largely due to its strong appeal among consumers in lower-tier cities in China. As mentioned above, lower–tier, or “Xiachen”, markets are seen as the next big opportunity and both domestic and international brands are eager to try new methods to connect with this audience.
Alibaba’s Taobao livestreaming platform is both an early adopter and leader in the e-commerce livestreaming space, and over the past few years they have cultivated a strong base of high-performing livestream hosts.阿里巴巴旗下的淘宝直播平台既是电商直播领域的先行者，也是领头羊，在过去几年里，他们培养了一支强大的主播队伍。
Two of the largest hosts, Viya and Austin Li, reached a celebrity status in China over the past year. Frequently ranked as the top-selling streamer on Taobao, Viya became known in the West after collaborating with Kim Kardashian during Singles Day 2019. Li became a household name throughout China after amassing an enormous audience on numerous Chinese social media platforms outside of the Alibaba ecosystem, becoming the first and only Taobao livestreamer to enjoy such widespread fame and popularity.粉丝最多的两位主播薇娅和李佳琦在过去一年中成了明星。薇娅经常被评为淘宝直播最能带货的主播，2019年双十一与金·卡戴珊合作后，薇娅的名气也扩展到了西方。李佳琦在阿里巴巴生态系统之外的众多中国社交媒体平台上聚集了大量粉丝，成为了首个也是唯一一个享有如此广泛声誉和人气的淘宝主播。
Over the past few years, China has seen a surge in young consumers’ interest in domestic brands and products that incorporate Chinese traditional style and culture, a trend known as guochao.
China’s young adults, particularly those between the ages of 20-25, grew up in a different environment than previous generations. They have seen the rise of China as a global economic powerhouse.中国的年轻人，特别是20-25岁之间的年轻人，成长**与前几代人不同。他们看到了中国作为全球经济强国的崛起。
As this age demographic is becoming one of China’s largest spending groups, domestic brands have quickly jumped at this opportunity – more established and previously considered outdated brands such as Li-Ning and Pechoin are rebranding themselves to appeal to younger audiences, brands popular in the early 2000s such as White Rabbit and Wanglaoji are drawing on nostalgia, and new brands such as Perfect Diary, Hey Tea, and Zhongxuegao are appearing out of nowhere and achieving incredible sales with their guerilla marketing strategies.随着这一年龄段的消费者逐渐成为中国最大的消费群体之一，国内品牌也迅速**了这个机会——成熟到甚至有些过时的品牌，如李宁和百雀羚，正在重塑自己的品牌，以吸引年轻受众。21世纪初流行的大白兔、王老吉等品牌在打怀旧牌。完美日记、喜茶、钟薛高等新品牌也是忽然出现在消费者视野，并以游击式的营销策略实现了不可思议的销售额。
The full collection of the lipsticks released by the Palace Museum, December 9, 2018. [Photo courtesy of the Palace Museum Cultural and Creative Store]
Guochaois not only about the rise of domestic brands, but also the resurgence of traditional style and cultural elements. Beijing’s historical Forbidden City has become extremely popular among Chinese youth due to its numerous product design collaborations with both domestic and international brands and influencers.
fads /fæd/ n. 一时的风尚；短暂的**
tier /tɪr/n. 排；层；等级
powerhouse /ˈpaʊərhaʊs/n. 强大的集团（或组织）
resurgence /rɪˈsɜːrdʒəns/n. 复苏；复兴